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tv   Book TV  CSPAN  July 28, 2013 12:00am-7:01am EDT

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capital for the next morning had never seen this on tv has shown up for work the next morning the yet the world was turned upside down with a short-term receptionists. and with governor alexander. >> but on that question based on the advice i asked the new cabinet members to make no decisions between the swearing in on wednesday and saturday of the news. said the decisions could not be challenged later. . .
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once the governor issues upardon, that's it. >> and for those who don't know who roger humphrey is, please read the book. captured the drama of the story, and it is a stunning story, lee smith was part of it. frank sullivan had his hand up. >> this much detail as you have in your book, you had to encounter factual
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what was theigst conflict you had that you had to resolve? >> whether it was tom's neck tie or -- [laughter] >> that's true. and the answer was, it was tom's neck tie. but we respect him. i say that in because because i was struck by how much common ground there was in the shared memories of these people. 30 years later. it was astounding that how the things happened in the afternoon in the hotel room, that -- call that chapter -- the title of the chapter is, the dance. how did that go? and that's a -- bill coke, i was very patient -- how all that worked and -- but there was an extraordinary level of agreement
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this many years later and, thought that was profound. >> question? >> i'm curious, -- [inaudible] -- did either of the speakers or anybody hear from -- [inaudible] >> i did not, with an exception. vanderbilt did a archive last year of my papers as governor, and i thought it was just a bunch of junk that nobody would bother. they found all kind of things. one thing they found was an envelope, addressed to me, with ray blanton's return address on it, and in it was the key to the governor's office. he had mailed that to me. and later on that night i went back to my office and we had the blinks red lights on the phones, and i pushed the button, and it was the governor's highway
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patrolman, i can't remember his name. he said, this is so and so. the governor wants you to call him. and it was very poignant moment. talk about resistance. one person that did resist was the governor's counsel, who was walking out of his office with the commutations, and -- >> tell that story. >> the governor's counsel had been arrested the month before, and so judge robert willard of nashville was the governor's legal counsel, and when tommy and bill went up to secure the capitol, they made their way to judge willard's office and he was preparing some final paperwork, putting it in his brief case, and said, bob, you
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can't leave, and he says, i'm taking these to the governor. he says no, you're not. a very tense moment. very critical moment in this story. and he says, well, i just -- he said i need to get the governor on the phone. he said, get him on the phone. was not immediately available but bob lewis says you can take the papers. i'm going home. my work here is done. the phone rings and it's governor blanton. and judge willard answers and he says, well, he is sitting right here and he says it's governor blanton, and lou we says i'll talk to him. he says, you can't bring me the papers. and he said i'll come to the capitol, and mr. donaldson said, no, you will not. willard is 6'8 --" two
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extraordinary individuals, very distinguished. >> the rest of the conversation is by blanton says to louie, by whose authority, and louie says by the governor's authority, and blanton says, i am the governor. and louie said, not anymore. he said, well, i'll come down there, and louvre we says, i won't let you in. >> question? >> what inspired you to write the book? this is a few years later. why is it coming out now and not sooner? >> that's a good question. it took me a year and a half to write it. finished it a year or so good. the vanderbilt university president the back of the room, he and her colleagues took time to do their good work, and like
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to recognize mccarty who linked me up with the vice chancellor, and it took a while for the press to do their work. the better answer is that the research, all the interviews, which tike me -- it was fun to do because it took me back to my reporter days and this book is as much about journalist as about politicians but that took awhile. so probably started the interview five or six years ago, and people were very patient with me. >> i'm going to ask the last question. and then i'll ask -- i know these are six tough hours, unforgettable hours, the worst day of our lives. what about the days following? how did what happened that day
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impact your administration over the next four years in. >> well, it would be tough for the country, but if every united states senator serving today had a six-hour boot camp like i hate for how to get along with the opposite party, the country would be better off. [applause] >> this didn't really occur to me until we started talking about this. but i didn't really knowed in mccourter and john wilder and bill leach. i knew them, but we had never worked together. and i was this new young republican governor, in this democratic establishment that had grown up over a half century. everything was democratic. the newspaper, the lobbyist, the
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supreme court, everything. and so how was this going to work for the next four years, hopefully eight from my point of view. but in the four or five hours we found a way to work together on something that was more difficult than anything else we would ever deal with in the next four or eight years, and develop a level of trust and respect for one another, and that carried on the whole time, and so when we got into how we going to pay for the road program, are we going to borrow money or raise taxes, and got into how we're going to deal with the national education association on rewarding outstanding teaching. we had a way to do it and we got a result, and i was lucky. i -- we survived that four or five hours, and it gave me a boot camp of how to get along with some really very, very good people, and i was privileged to
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work with during the eight years. i've always -- well, in the state government, admired his courage and making the cal -- call that day. >> this afternoon, hal and ile -- hal and i were in the supreme court room listening, and i will tell you for my part, the ghosts of 34 years were still there. it was a stunning moment in the history of the state. i think you, lamar, and you, hal, for your leadership. across that stoney sea during
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those six hours. thank you for recording it all in a wonderful book. i'll ask all of you to join me in thanking these three panelist for -- [applause]
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>> here's maurine beasley.
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>> good morning. my name is jeff urban, the education specialist here at the roosevelt presidential library and museum, and on behalf of the fdr presidential library and museum i'd like to welcome all of you in our audience and to those at home on c-span to the roosevelt reading festival. the library's research room is consistently one of the busiest of all the presidential libraries and this year's group of authors reflects the wide variety of research that is done here. let me quickly go over the format for the sessiones. at the top of each hour a session begins with a 30-minute author talk followed by a ten-minute question ask answer period. then the authors move to the table in the lobby next to the store where you can purchase becomes and have them sign them. at the top of the next hour the process repeats again. today's attendees of the lectures can visit the exciting new permanent exhibit in the presidential library museum free
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of charge. just ask one of the staff members for the admission button and the program will be free for you to go over. i'd like to remind you at the enwhen we have our questions and answer sessions, please come up to the microphone so we can get the question on the mic, and we'll be able to answer that. and now it's my pleasure to introduce maurine beasley. the author of wow women of washington press: politics, principle dis, and persistence." the winner of the frank luther motte research award in 2012. a professor of journalism at the university of maryland and the author of eleanor roosevelt, transformative first lady, and first ladies and the press, the unfished partnership in the media age. she is a co-author of taking their place, the documentary history of women in journalism and cooed -- co-ed did for -- co-ed did for. let me introduce to you maurine
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beasley. [applause] >> thank you so much. it's great to be back at hyde park. this is a tremendous research facility. i'd like to express my appreciation to the roosevelt library museum for inviting me to be here today, and to c-span for presenting this program. you may wonder how my book fits into the program. well, part of the research for it was certainly done here at the roosevelt library, and i'll have to introduce my husband in the audience, hank beasley, who is a great researcher and is always with me up here at the library. now, eleanor roosevelt is one of the dominating figures in the first portion of my book, "women of the washington press: politics, prejudice, and persistence." because all of these things are touched in the book, but we
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first portion of it see much of this through the eyes of eleanor roosevelt, and the women who covered her press conferences. of course i start out with women in washington journalism, way back in 1830. you may say, was there a woman in washington journalism then? yeah, there was a notable, if not notorious individual. so the book then moves through the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st, up to today. when women probably constitute about half of the working journalists in the nation's capitol. well, why concentrate on washington women journalists? why not write about women journal grist general? because journalism in the nation's capitol is so closely allied to the political power structure of this country, that it can be considered a testimony to the extent to which women
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have been able to break into what is traditionally a male preserve of politics, preserve of journalism. so if we look at this group of washington women journalists we can gauge how far women have come in both of these areas. now, how are women faring today? i'm not going into that. but i'd like to point out that in this period when we're changing from print-oriented culture to digital culture so forth. very idea of journalism itself is being discussed in redefined. women are playing important roles, but they are still more likely than not to be working for male superiors. the roosevelt library helped chart the course of women in washington journalism, due t
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the extraordinary career of eleanor, who, in the opinion of many, was the single most important woman of the mid-20th century. we think of her today as the past breaking first lady from 1933 to 1945, and then as the guiding spirit behind the universal declaration of human rights, when she served as u.s. representative to the united nations, from 1945 to 1952. but we tend to forget that she was one of the most successful washington women journalists herself. in terms of her newspaper column, magazine articles, radio broadcasts, not to mention all of her paid speeches. when she was in the white house. equally important, though, to the story of washington women journalist was her impact on other women in the field. and that is what i'm going to talk about this morning. the ground covered in the first
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chapters of the book. now, i have to tell you that i've been working on this book for a very long time. it started with my dissertation many years ago at george washington university, and so i had the opportunity to interview some of the women who actually attended these press conferences before they passed from the scene. therefore, i think i do have some insights here into the way these press conferences went, that would be of interest to us. the importance of the conferences, which are often brushed off by people who write about eleanor. she held press conferences for women only. but thorn's of them -- the importance of them, though, has been overlooked. so i would like to ask some questions of you about eleanor as the focus point for women
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journalists in the capitol of her day. i'd like to raise these questions and i'll elaborate on them and then i'd like hear your answers when we get to q & a. okay. questions. did these press conferences allow women journalists -- i should say, newspaper women because that's what most of the women were. this is a period, 1933-1945 when newspapers are still the name of the journalism game, although radio is coming in. and the movies were there, but news reels but newspapers were the thing. it's a period when washington, dc had five daily newspapers. can you imagine? anyway, did these press conferences allow newspaper women to be admitted into the male culture of washington
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politics if only on a very marginal level. that's one question. second question: did these press conferences, in eleanor roosevelt held 350 of them for women reporters only while she was first lady. did they help eleanor enhance her own journalism career through network with other women? and a third question: to what extent did they facilitate opportunities for women to bond with each other and promote an alternative journalistic culture to the male dominated one that excluded them? and then there's overreaching question, too, that i do raise in the book and i'd love to hear your answers to: after we get to q & a -- did the conferences help or hurt the women
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professionally who covered them? i will tell you some of the reasons that people thought they hurt women, and then some of the reasons that people thought they helped them. and you can decide. first, though, step backwards to the first washington woman journalist, 1830, anne royle, who published two newspapers in the nation's capitol from 1830 to 1854. one was name the huntress. now, anne royal was a town joke. he was an impoverished widow who hired a couple of boys from an orphanage to run the press for her and put out these newspapers. she was determined to have had her say about what went on
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politically. she would latch on to members of congress as they entered the capitol. and insist they give her news items, and if they did she wrote nice things about them. if they didn't, well, you can imagine. anyway, a story went around that she once sat on president john quincy adam's clothes when he took his morning dip in the potomac refused to get up until he answered her questions. historians say that never happened but no less a famous washington woman journalist than the trail blazing helen thomas, who unfortunately died just a few days ago, called it a wonderful legend when she spoke in 1990 to professional gorgeous journalists. she said she was glad there was no rule against irritating president with imimpudent
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questions. by the time franklin roosevelt was elected president, 1942, women journal-its were no longer washington freaks and a few of them actually got close to a president. for that matter few were allowed to be in the same room in the same city room, with men reporters. let's imagine ourselves back in an era when most women in journalism worked in segregated quarters for what were called him in -- women in society pages. do you remember those? the newspapers dropped them in the 1960ss and went into a lifestyle section. these were segregated sections of in the newspaper and segregated in terms of where the women were. they weren't even allowed to be in the same room with men in washington, these women were known as the green room group, probably after the green book
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that lists those washingtonians in society. a very small number had credentials to cover the president, and actually paid dues to the white house correspondents association but they were not allowed to go to its dinner because they were women. it was some 30 years later that women members of this association actually were able to go to its dinner, which is the main thing it held, and helen thomas was elected its first woman president. so, in this era now, the early 1930s, when franklin roosevelt was elected president, you did have a handful of women, like a clever feature writer from nebraska who worked for the "associated press," who were actually accredited to the capitol press galleries. even then their opportunities were limited.
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berman was listed at the very bottom of the 36th ap representatives to the press galleries, and she was told she could cover only women members of congress. you can imagine how many of those there were. she said the ap men kept capitol hill, quote, as holy ground, on which i was not to set foot without explicit orders. wouldn't even let her go there. berman knew she was fortunate to be employed at all. the united press, then the ap's chief rival, refused to hire any women. so when eleanor roosevelt would hold press conferences for women reporters only, the up was compelled to hire ruby black, a identify beta kappa graduate of the university of texas. black started her own news bureau in washington and had a
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hard time hunting up clients, found eleanor a welcome change from her first lady predecessor, lou henry hoover. mrs. hoover was so far away from the press that black had been forceed to bribe a male colleague to reveal details of mrs. hoof hoover's daily schedule and the mail colleague whose bribe had to snoop around among the secret service men and word back to black. similarly, berman resorted to dressing up in a girl scout uniform and sneaking into the white house, to cover a christmas party that mrs. hoover gave for a scout troop. you can see that the idea of eleanor meeting ultimately with women journalists was very welcome to a good number of
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these washington women. with the greatest of pleasure, berman and black were among the 35 who gathered for eleanor's first press conference on march 6, 1933. they heard a nervous first lady who knew the white house staff thought it was a very unundying any identified for her to meet with the press. explained why she intended to hold the conferences. the idea is to make an understanding between the white house and the general public, eleanor told them in a statement. you are the interprets for the women of this country as to what goes on politically in the legislative national life and also what the social and personal life is at the white house. >> the women journalists were actually told they were important, and had a political
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role in washington, which is a place that revolves around politics. now, to be sure, eleanor told them she could not comment on political topics. that was her husband's department. then, of course, she sometimes did. the idea for the press conferences came from laura hickcock, who covered eleanor in franklin's successful 1932 presidential campaign. hickcock described as a row -- didn't like her -- was forced to give up her career because of her closeness to eleanor.
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historians disagree on the exact nature of their relationship, but letters of endearment, which are here at the library, exchanged between the two, testified to their closeness and suggest certainly some physical intimacy. now, according to eleanor's autobiography, hick, as hickcock was called by everybody, hat suggested the press conferences because women reporters were losing their jobs in the depression if newspapers cut payroll, and of course the women less capable than men, let the women go. hickcock went to work for the roosevelt administration as an undercover activity but stayed at the white house when she was in washington, and probably counseled eleanor on them. now, i had the good fortune or talking to some of these women that takenned the press
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conference years ago. according to mary hornaday of the christian science monitor, a woman so capable she was given the high is praise possible in those days, she wrote like a man. anyway, told me that she thought laura hickcock persuaded mrs. roosevelt that everything she did was new, and certainly at these press conferences eleanor would go into all kinds of detail about her personal life. she would tell the women, for example, yes, i like to have facials. yes, i like to go horseback riding. yes, i do this. yes, i do that. dorothy dukeas, another woman i had the good fortune to talked to, who covered the press conferences for the international news service, said that hickcock tried to guide eleanor on how to handle
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herself. she said that hickcock tried to make her say the wise things, not the impulsive ones. mrs. roosevelt had a tendency to ramble on, and these press conferencees went for an hour and a half while the women chatted among themselves. as a group, dukeas said, the women covered up for eleanor by not reporting comments they did not think suitable to print. why would they shield her from adverse publicity? they did not want the conferences to end. they liked them. the first conference produced little news. eleanor would allow herself to be quoted directly in only one sentence, the times is one that requires courage and common sense on everyone's part. a reference to the anxiety gripping the nation in the great depression. this was hardly a startling
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assertion and rutted in a modest one column story in "the new york times." the press conference had been a great success. judging by a picture taken at the second press conference on march 13, 1933, and ordered by berman of the "associated press." but this picture then became a bit of an embarrassment. it showed roosevelt seated in a chair with the women reporters clusters around her. some of them were standing up but others were sitting at her feet. now, male reporters scoffed. tarring the women as eleanor's incense burners. hornaday said their scorn reflected prejudice against women in general. franklin himself made a joke about the newspaper women seated at his wife's feed.
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a noted cartoonist for the old washington star newspaper, drew a caricature of the conferences and i think for years it was here on the library and museum exhibit. i don't know if it's still out or not. now, black countered this by publishing a comment that mrs. roosevelt, without ever mentioning it, put it into this girl's at mrs. roosevelt's feet by giving orders to the white house that chairs be provided for all who attended the meetings. even black, however, who was attacked as eleanor's slave, because she always wrote such laud torre things about the first lady, wished the conferences produced more hard news. black said the first lady would speak in generalities about
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social concerns, including housing, education and legislation that aimed to bar married women from working. still, the mundane quality of the announcements eleanor always had announcements about her social schedule, about the places she was going, and of course we know she was tremendously energetic individual and a great travel sore she always had plenty to say about her personal schedule, often featured material for women's pages. now, mail -- male gorgeousist give the conferencees more respect after the roosevelt administration decided eleanor, not franklin, should release the news in 1933 that beer would be served again the white house as the first step in ending prohibition. this decision showed the white house considered the press conferences as part of its
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political communication strategy. now, eleanor had discussed this subject in advance with mart martha strayer of the old washington daily news who, like thurman black, hornaday to an extent and others had become a member of eleanor's inner press conference circle. this group coached her by planting questions and advising on statements. strayer, a prim tee toteler, advised eleanor to hand out a carefully thought out statement, along with a carefully worded expression of hope that the change would contribute to temperance. while eleanor expected these suggestions she did not follow strayer's recommendation to deal only with the beer announcement. illustrating the meandering quality of the conferences she took questions on other subjects as varied as easter hats. the fashion at these
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conferences, what were you going to wear? and her views on sweat shops, because she would be asked her opinion on issues of the day. now, i must move on here. there's a lot more we can see about the press conferences. they continue to draw reporters. by 1939, there were over 120 women accredited to these press conferences. although the number was cut drastically during world war ii when the women formed mrs. roosevelt's press conference association. a few women, chiefly may craig, a peppering correspondent from maine newspapers who was close to the innerstill, thought men should be admitted on grounds of fairness. eleanor said no. claiming men would force her to encroach on my husband's side of the news. now, i must move on here because our time is running short. i want to bring up the question
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of, did these press conferences enhance eleanor's own career as a journalist and we know eleanor start evidence -- started wright her column in the enof 1935, and continued it almost up until the day she died in 1962. the women thought this column was silly. they thought it was a very amateurish thing. they were the professional journalist. so, at first, they were quite willing to sort of overlook it or to write about it positively. but as time went on, this column became very important. it was one of the most widely sin rick -- syndicated columns of the day and eleanor made money on it and the women got jealous. for example, press conference
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groups was rather annoyed when she used the "my day" column to break stories that otherwise might have come out in the press conference, such as her resignation from the daughters of the american revolution, over its refusal to let the african-american singer marion anderson give a concert in its constitution hall. dukeas called the column very naive, but today we would call it a blog, with its emphasis on where eleanor went and what she did, written in a chatty informal style. pardon me. hornaday thought mainly as a reflection of eleanor's desire do make money. we resented it when she wrote her column, competing with us, hornaday said. well, in the 12 years eleanor's press conferences continued to draw these to gain access to the white house.
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detractors said they weakened the status of women journalist because they encouraged depep -- depen -- dependence on one source, eleanor, and she would stipulate they not say a certain thing, for example, franklin was running for re-election in 1936. some told the women she didn't want them to talk about anything related to birth control that had come up at these conferences, because that was a politically volatile subject. black's closeness to roosevelt did not help here career. she became known as roosevelt's apologist, left the united press, obtained a government position with eleanor's help that did not work out. suffered from alcoholism, and other problems, and died in a fire. on the other hand, bess fuhrman eventually was hired by "the new york times" washington bureau and wrote in her autobiography
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that she hitched my wagon to a star. and the star was eleanor roosevelt. she continued to help fuhrman, and fuhrman was less needy perhaps than ruby black. she got help from eleanor bus not in such an obvious way. now, i'll end up with this. after eleanor left washington, following franklin's death, in 1945, must be remembered that eleanor had made quite a lot of money. for example, i have here eleanor's earnings in the white house years. this is based on a study of her income tax returns which are available here in the hyde park library. and it showed that from the years 1937 to 1939, for example, she had average net annual earnings of $62,000.
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that's a lot of money in those days. those were net earnings, too. 68,000 before expenses. so, these women never wrote things about eleanor. saying she is using her position to enhance herself. instead they covered up that kind of thing because they did feel somewhat grateful to her for allowing them to come to the white house every week. it was may craig, the one who first asked that men be allowed in and been told that wasn't going to happen, who played an important role in pushing for the 1964 civil rights act that outlawed sex discrimination and finally forced news organizations to hire women on an equitable basis. 1964, howard w. smith, conservative virginia
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congressman, sought to stop passage of major civil rights legislation by adding the word "sex" to title 7 of the penning act which originally outlawed employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, or national origin. but including "sex" "he hoped to red call the proposed legislation to death but the joke backfired. capitol hill insiders tagged the measure the may craig amendment, in honor of craig's feminist views. craig pushed for years to have restroom facilities adjacent to the capitol press gallery for the women porters who were credited to the press gallery. the closest bathrooms were down the hall and they had to run down several flight office stairs just do use the restroom. now, was craig supported by
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other washington women in this endeavor? not particularly. other women journalists thought it was unladylike, unseem he to mention such a subject. so craig was out there by herself on that one. therefore, that is one of the reasons that capitol hill insiders tagged the measure the may craig amendment in honor of may craig's feminist views. in 1964, craig, who was known for her sort of down homey eastern accent -- a correspondent from maine newspapers and her funny hats -- maybe some of you may remember her -- was one of the few women 0 to be a regular guest on the public affairs program "meet the press." passage of the amendment outlawing sex discrimination was assured when senator herbert humphrey of minnesota told a "meet the press" audience in answer to a question from craig, that the democratic leadership
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in congress had decided to accept the amendment with the word "sex." so, at this point, one can say that perhaps eleanor would have been extremely pleased that a member of her press conference circle succeeded in so widening opportunities for women journalists. thank you. [applause] >> come up by the microphone. >> this about with the men in journalism today. i've been concerned about the increasing partisan politics coming into print journalism as well as tv journalism. i wonder if it's really new, has it always been as bitter and as
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vicious as it is today? and is it possible for a journalist to have a career today and be neutral, present the facts, and be more traditional in the way they're presenting the news? >> i'd be happy to try to comment on that. no, i think it's a new development. certainly in eleanor roosevelt's day these press conferences were not controversial and didn't ask questions, are you using your position to earn money or using your name to sell thing that nobody would buy otherwise? they would have considered that rude. nobody asked eleanor about the rumor around the capitol that franklin had had an affair with lucy mercer years being. those things weren't mentioned. what has happened in recent times is a result of the fragmentation of the audience and the increasing demand of the
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24-hour news cycle we have with the cable television, and with digital media and emphasis on getting everything fast, twitter. people are no locker -- longer interested in objectivity and accuracy. they're interested in terms of being journalists in getting ahead by being edgy, by being out there being talked about by getting attention. also, there's a fine line between entertainment and journalism. journalism is supposed to be people who actually got facts and presented those facts to the public. public no longer seems very interested in facts. it seems to be interested mainly in having media reports from those who have the same biases they do.
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so, i think it's a recent development and very disturbing one, wish we would get back to an age where facts were validated statements, but since there seems to be less of a public incentive these days on things, it makes its very difficult to reach such an agreement. >> i'm curious about fdr's role in relation to eleanor and her relationship with the press, both through press conferences and through the "my day" column and other activities to what degree did fdr either directly or how to a press secretary or someone else on the white house staff, attempt to play a role in monitoring and screening what eleanor what doing?
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obviously she could be a great political asset to him and his administration, but one false step could cause a great deal of damage. how active in the middle of everything else he had to do was the president in relation to his wife's press activities? >> that's an excellent question. thank you for asking that. yes, he was quite active. yes, he supported the press conferences. louie howell,-under his political genius, supported the press conferences. his press secretary had a big hand in deciding who got in and who didn't. actually no african-american women got in because african-americans were not admitted to the president's press conference, and steve didn't want any african-american women admitted to eleanor's press conferences, either. they were kept out on the ground they represented weekly newspapers, not daily newspapers. but actually that was just a
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ploy to maintain segregation. definitely the white house saw these press conferences as a political asset for franklin. after all, look at the relationship between franklin roosevelt and newspapers of the time. the reporters, individual reporters, liked the roosevelt. the people who ran the newspapers did not. one of the members of eleanor's inner circle, at the press conferences, was a woman nailed emma bugby, the main woman writer for the new york herald tribune, a leading republican newspaper. this newspaper opposed to franklin but here's emma bugby writing all these nice features about the roosevelt family and the white house and going through the white house living quart arers and telling how eleanor furnished things. franklin definitely realized these press conferences helped him reach women, who were
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voters. he also had absolutely no objection to eleanor writing her "my day" column and once offered to write it for her when she was sick with a cold but she refused. it was her thing. he talked off the column, by telling the men -- there were a few women but very few -- at his press conferences -- that's my mrs., she just writes a diary. and it was a -- what we today would consider a blog, but think how it humanized the presidency, and franklin, as smart as he was realize that -- let me read you this quote from the first column, december 31, 19 pa. writing about herself in the white house. the house looks full of young people mitchell husband had a cold and was in bed having milk toast for his supper. so i said a polite good night to
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everybody and at 7:30, closed my dar, lit my fire and settled down to a nice long evening by myself. well, doesn't that give you a nice picture of life in the white house? certainly doesn't tell you about the opposing political factions in the white house itself between franklin and eleanor so franklin is very supportive of her effort, and she was careful not to do things that would upset him, such as talking about subjects like birth control were no-nos to a political coalition including a lot of roman catholics. [inaudible] >> at least during the war, if not before, she was bugging the hell out of him. >> she was. >> liberal causes that for political or other reasons he did not have a strong -- and she was ahead of him if you want to put it that way in a way he was
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not happy about. >> that's very true. but to what degree she used the press conferences to advance these liberal causes and to what degree she used "my day" to do that was within the context of a wife speaking out and roosevelt could sort of laugh it off by saying, that's just my mrs.. of course there was this prevailing ideology that women are supposed to be better than men so it's all right for them to be more moral and eleanor went around visiting day cair centers and having her picture taken with a lot of african-americans at a time when the segregationists in the south objected to that great greatly, but certainly that happened the roosevelt coalition in the northern cities where the african-americans were voting. so, franklin, although he didn't attack the southern
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segregationists in congress because he had to work with them, still could make use of eleanor's interest in civil rights, to attract liberal constituency. so there were all these currents. [inaudible] >> hello. i think we all know that journalists are very important in a society, civilized society. they for bring to the people what is happening, where, what, and when, objectively. but today, with the internet, we have the rise of the citizen journalist and sometimes they don't give it objectively.
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so, wtre we readers going to do in this citizen journalism society? >> well, think that's a very good question. how do you maintain some semblance of finding information that is correct and accurate. i can only answer that -- wish i could give a really good answer but i can only answer by saying that in a lot of universities, including the one i've worked at for many years, the university of maryland at college park, there's an increasing interest on providing course work in meet ya literacy that will give people some idea, at least while they're in school, of how to find accurate sources of information, and unless students understand that not everything they find on the enter northwest is valuable information. [applause] >> thank you very much.
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[inaudible conversations] [brief pause in captioning] [inaudible conversations] [inaudible conversations] >> we'll be back in a few minutes with moyer from the 2013 roosevelt reading festival in hyde park, new york.
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>> you spend a lot of anytime your book on israel, iraq, and islam, and one of the isms you talk about is the real reason the islamists have declared war on the rest, that it embodies the free tom of the individual and the negation of the auto cratic authority. it threatens islam everywhere. >> this is preoccupied me for several years and obviously preoccupies more of us more and more, and i think as i said there's a problem here with the
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islamic world, and with the religion of the islamic world and it's very, very important to understand, i think in all this, that when one talks about these concerns one is not talking about all muslimsment on the contrary, there are -- just taking the point of view of britain. there are many muslims who came as immigrants to britain because they want to signed up to british and western values and want to leave in freedom, have good jobs and live in freedom because freedom is very important to them. the women wanted to be treat as equals. they wanted all the things that we all want. freedom, peace, security, prosperity. and they're not hung up on these religious precepts that are causing us in the western world trouble. but the problem is in the islamic world the precepts have
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been interpreted in a way that comes out of religion and is now dominant, and that is to say that the view of the world which says the world has to be remade according to islamic precepts, there's a -- muslims are enjoying western-type freedom, that must be pulled back and must be made to conform to a very, very narrow authoritarian, conservative interpretation of islam. that view is now dominant. and the view that the west must be brought to heel for this vision, this interpretation of islam, is also dominant. and that's what i call islamism-ism. people say what is this word the it's nonsense. what you mean is islam. and i understand what -- anism is a madeup word but i use it for a particular reason, because
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it is an order to allow for the fact that there are muslims who are not extreme, who do want to sign up for western values and we must acknowledge that. and there are muslims who don't. so, those who don't i call and others call islamists because they're trying to impose islamic doctrine on people who are not muslim, and they're trying to impose the most high bound, antifreedom interpretation of religion at its most narrow on muslims. ...
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>> it was about to re-read
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for sees the case the way in which the mias to my great horror, of the british ruling cast could then to over mind these steps have these values in britain for their great variety of reasons that basically said if you are along with this. so i was extremely careful is even [inaudible] acknowledges that many muslims find this frightening and worrying and have nothing to do with that.
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>> i keep going back. 1861 the first year of the civil war. 1863 down and to to really get a sense of what was happening during 1861 the first shots canada for sumpter -- fort sumter in what was happening for slavery and other issues. also lead being up to the "emancipation proclamation." the lincoln administration and fast for a 100 years a great book about 1960 denied a and it is '70s with the breakup of the beatles a and
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but then to have with stocking and 69, with the department's moving to the war in did vietnam. all it is a remarkable book. right now called the execution or executioner and is a book about an executioner from the 16th century alone cory and also interesting but the same with his diary in germany during that time. and
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>> just as the country was out of donny and it was a trial who pushed for the manhattan and was on trial for the murder character in his defense attorneys were both alan -- shared for a and alexander hamilton. there was a remarkable trial that took place in the '70s. but to have these rivals, i was not give away the ending.
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>> the first problem to explain secularization is that it is understood by great modernist in their plenty of mediocre ones that the process that decisions slowly but surely go for mayors or the more sophisticated precinct hamas as they become more acre gated in more prosperous. >> some of these find themselves more skeptical. but somewhere in the long run but this could take a while. and to be famous lee predicted the four months
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death to reach everyone but no matter how long come there has been the posted limit among secular figures that in the long ride but again this has been assumed by many people not to be accurate. just like the candles on a birthday cake. individual we have until there is nobody left. but there are some problems with this idea. first-come of the conventional story line does not describe the realities of christianity. american sociologists start with the contrary in june
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and have something of a classic called secularization, rested peace and opens to the entertaining review of those going back in the 1600's to the present day and not limited to frederick the great and thomas jefferson. and others. a lot of people proclaimed the death of god. but finally as he points out the almighty has not inspired and as a side note those that are frustrated that christianity's persistence in the world would be the first. said is the conventional story line and here is another. to have the stereotypes released also is not a
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straight out function of education. this area -- stereotypes is deeply ingrained. a few years back we saw the president of united states unthinkingly had esther type to single out those who would cling to their guns and their religion. the. >> the president was just reiterating the view of the campaign before. but half a cancellation prize but then the better off but to be fair to president obama he is not the only one to put that up
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there. remember from "the washington post" did years ago but they went largely poor, uneducated. those are immortal words. everyone knows these things but yet it has a sense you to leave and the stereo -- stereotypes knew the picture the once again that conventional account was correct. if it was predicted who had religion and why but then you would expect the less educated than the more religious they would be. so the fact there are not correct and with the opposite is true that the conventional understanding has missed something. one british historian and he
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documents the said word entry of and did that period it is just like said graduate in the and there would go up the social ladder. but the poorest districts tend to have the lowest rates of attendance and of large upper class population had the highest. and did the other words in contrast to the idea of the pie is pour sharing the upperclassman's to be the opposite in london. of the small number of working adults attended the church groups. in british disorients with another expert other members may same point of religiose city during those years that
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the working class was out much of the same can be found in the united states that economic incentives to kick -- sophistication are found only in the state. >> we're back live with war from the fdr presidential library. >> good morning everyone. i am the supervisory archivist from the museum did it is my pleasure to welcome new to the tenth annual was about being bessel celebrating the tenth
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anniversary. please all takeout yourself phones, pagers for what keeps the most and sees to turn them off so our presentation is not interrupted. also our colleague and finally to go with the format come to those that have been here know this signal. they will seek about 30 minutes then tender 15 minutes for questions and answers a that would ask you come line up and stand at the microphone and then you will be called for a question. then there is a period we will go out to a library to sign the books that you will
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not -- that you purchase. and as many of you know, we have just read dedicated the library after the three-year renovation and so if you can find the library staff people then get one of these people -- one of these bolts to see free of talk -- the charge. a maid juice you our speaker. it is a pleasure to see him here at the roosevelt library. one of the best men in the profession but a good friend of mine and the author of his latest book from robo work to do it he was the chief speech writer for the governor and vice president rockefeller and is the author of american original in the secret fdr world war
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ii. and and franklin is proof said he will keep coming back ladies and gentlemen,. [applause] >> the queue for that overgenerous introduction. there is at least to add of three books of mine with fdr there is a certain spell in history but first as the
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recruiter how a will was -- how he was? in there is a strategist how did the strategies hasten or delay the victory? and then how will did he inspired a and motivate? and today to put a think the
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nomenclature is confusing. he is not a staff officer bet chief of the army. but to describe a footman meaning almost anybody n
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roosevelt picks up on this from their association general marshall and this president. now marshall went on with the meetings to criticize the program he said it was over the expansion in the rules that could speak ups to make you could be impressed by marshals who are willing to stand up to him. by george marshall brings a
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very distinguished officer nothing but praise in reviews for eisenhower. >> their plan is to conduct a massive buildup in the british isles and other allied forces in then to cross the english channel. then it went straight through. now to assure the president this can be done in 1843, one year after remit
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of the roosevelt appears to be approving of the project. he then sends george marshall and his closest confidant to london to explain the plan and ensure show could not agree. -- churchill could not agree. 43 sounds far off. "time" magazine is noting we have been in the course six months in not one single ince of enemy territory has been occupied did -- occupied near everyone of that but -- a victory. fdr wanted to engage the germans. he gave lip service to their support across the english channel but his real objective was to save the british empire.
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the idea was if you want to control north africa at this time it was essentially controlled through all french colonies. said government that is essentially surrounded with nazi germany and allowed under the terms so presumably when me and fade north africa, .
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>> here are his arguments for sending the troops but when he finds out the president has altered did the original plan he is appalled and he realizes that could be arranged across the channel that the invasion does not take place until june 44 but then to abandon the cross channel strategy describes but who
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would command the allied forces in supreme commander? >> everybody knows this will be george my show. finnair times visit. and mrs. marshall those issues already packing accordingly in george michael has every reason to believe the command will be his. to run the navy but she described her father as most interest haven't men they
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ever knew. [laughter] this fox was to do with of public but not period grover g., but it king was so tough that he schaede to itself with a blowtorch. fdr was ahead of the game mont dash 42. that was keeping great britain alive and sometimes thinking for ships in a single day. in their worship to protect those vessels and he did not move along fast enough.
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which resulted in the fact of an. chess meet for the elements. >> just days after fdr was summoned and said i want you to go out to the islands and don't come back until we have defeated the japanese. and became rule essentially to deleaded and to be revered but it was more like what king subjected to his subordinates but there is a very open minded professor in that 1.one that runs that
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coding operation can be specific to see the admiral. and he tells them that these codebreakers of messages can pinpoint the japanese steamy to the island of midway. but we are sure t to the admiral he can tell for that will be and at what time that any particular moment. in but there is a rendezvous and intended from their standpoint. who was within five minutes
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tohink they are the most wanted carriers. after six months of doom and doom in the pacific, also these humiliating surprise attacks and after our success at midway we will never be a legal fact. but from the airforce, the president picked general henry and is known as hats because he has another facial capacity. but the my city is the it
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but that is from 1,000 during heavy bombers against cities. although her mother said her mom within to put up the land in general as the best commander of this group.
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it he has elevated to the we cool line dash week-long services and this is described to see what was carrying a and the magnet kurta came from roosevelt. >> these two men have similar free-wheeling men and those were the days both the president would give the worst meehan six jobs to carry out or give six men one job to carry out.
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>> i don't know any. >> within he would go to the training center because the aircraft industry especially during world war ii with those who served him come of the military peacock, there is wonderful macarthur and some of his associates. but to say he was the senator from louisiana. his staff asked who is the of their dangerous figure?
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and it was macarthur. after the president and his office. >> macarthur retires from active surgery and goes to the philippines. he then begins the chapter of his military career and his name is a field marshal to facilitate the and it states to me it is the comic so but that puts macarthur
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back actively in does it was complete command with americans and filipinos. in the japanese conveyed those islands and down the mid peninsula up to the rocky island. the japanese will cede on a partner of oil leases state but eisenhower at this point is still in for the marshall with his view is yes you
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should play with macarthur coming he not only worked apparently from self-esteem and knowing that personality but it has great faith through the edginess and consequently the book from the philippines goes to australia. >> but the other half will go to new and he makes the
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famous battle cry from the philippines. there is the commission for see about but the contrary
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is from macarthur about the delay that lets him deliberate about the philippines and then he said it jumping bean but he said the but now the partner says the neck that will be adopted. he is both arguments time to make a brilliant transition.
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>> but fdr solves the dilemma with number 197. to hit both although he did come this week to invade the philippines but after that something happened, with douglas macarthur's behavior.
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but the ups vacation was a smokescreen. as a said earlier in my talk, everybody knows president roosevelt that time head came it would have been the logical test although of his career in that every school kid could name the civil war battlefields grant, sherman grant, sherman, a jackson coming but who remembers chief of staff? but fdr has observed something to capture the imagination.
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but in command of north africa but the united kingdom, what was this about? who weren't the seay a
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budget to cut a deal with the devil to reduce the existence of troops which was the case but again professor -- pfizer could not print typical and eisenhower with interested
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question how close to eisenhower? summers became the answer. but his death any suggestion but those involved with teeeight tie-ins for the second day. the chess strong changes like his own president to unify a stove this concern
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but it is absolute critical and but one of the reviews that he says he is hoping to be some. i am all for it to. pri's at fault -- involve. the president accepts the mainstream he pushes around
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the bush. with the think of the new supreme command? until then but what is good for him is the for the country. at that point it is clear the meeting is over. marshall rises chewed roche of front panel. i would not be in these is that you and washington. he is not meant to secrete
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the but they and it is astute eisenhower is deliberate. so let's talk about the most flamboyant of those incarnate on dash engorged. but.
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>> excuse me will you slap the saddle on that tank of yours to get the saber rattling? they have a very cosy chat and the president rights but to go to to military hospitals, he shops year credos. when revealed this ob in
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scope although nevertheless when asked by a reporter for those who went to except said gi and often is the hearing is the peer group lew of the relationship between unisys s. grant to and yourself and the president was criticized to we granted such high standards because he was known to be a drunkard. but then they say let's find out what it is that he drinks. [laughter] >> and.
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>> but part of rule were to occur as a point when they have driven across france to enter germany. and pat knows that his son-in-law, john waters. i do not think about that. but to snatch his son oriole
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>> this is under the forces of his command and eisenhower is shown very good judgment given in his command and to hold the breath. at the beginning of the war because it is displayed.
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devils are reversed. patent office and becomes a supported. >> olmos treadway the computer starts to tell extraordinary projects better taking place on the syrians of new mexico.
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>> so he assumes that no one is cut, but one freeze zero word to everybody. at this point that will produce the atom but in. finally this subject is hamas but with the white nation like jeremy. we would have. however during the battle
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the president is very concerned. 19,000 had jury to. so he. >> it is very clear in my mind he had no intention to use it at least at the level of that the and . the interesting saying is the team was very a vapor. of the punishment at the beginning of the war were still there at the end. at the time when winston
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churchill was fighting. >> and this is hard to quarrel. but by the time of his death 1945 his battlefield cruelly he did not see a full state of germany that takes place shortly thereafter or the defeat of the japanese but when we consider the polio from strategic concern and.
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>> but winston churchill has been criticized for meddling too much as he considers
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himself a military planner but as far as i know he left much of the planning to his generals. can you make comments as to why he took a path in military decision making that seems in contrast? >> is it true the president left the said david h. conduct of the war to the military readers to you was a strategist in chief to make the big decisions. fdr even after the united states people were receiving against the japanese he made the decision that the first objective must be to defeat nazi germany because he realized with that -- with
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that defeats would bring about the defeat of japan but the down japan would not asher germany. another strategic decision that he made january 1943 surprise to betty by insisting the war must be terminated and no the one way by the surrender of our enemy. to be very much criticized. >> it is a great top. what about the story that i think is a fact the president of philippines actually gave macarthur a
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quarter million dollars. is that true? >> the only thing that i can say are some quotes because there is a case even after the had been invaded with the ideal the cut earlier. another question? >>.
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>> why with the big embarrassment? >> it was clear to me after the command committed general marshall was definite with some hanky-panky and would send them back and a sense of play a technique but one says to maintain. any of their questions?
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>> fate q. but you did not answer my question. [laughter] >> but with this decision with the pacific command after those surrenders but at that point the command goes down further down it when he surrenders he begins even though he has not some macarthur -- mcarthur assumed we could carry on to the death. leader the cercis essentially starting and get into we target publicly we could carry on the battle to the very end.
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as he makes clear to his inner circle that we might surrender -- we won't surrender. anybody else? >> with that relationship between fdr and mccarthy? >> was see but the commander in chief has been fact. when the japanese attack that i would take them to austria and give them the fresh milk bonner of all things for his road. what he but with the psychology between and
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mccarthy. >> but those two men that served with each other, and a cursor i think they gave to. >> with the neighbor's kid along with the philippines and the president. if you try to redesign to say this man had stood on dash military exploded to it in the wrong way -- and the one-way.
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>> to follow up, in terms of reviews on public education is there an idea, is this book on her last book the best subject for her to read on public education? >> she certainly talks about public education. there are countless columns on public education and there are speeches that she gave on public education. this book, it is eleanor writing to juniors, senr
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underclassmen. i opted to go with penguin classic in paperback so that it would specifically be targeted to that community. and there are teaching guides that go with it and died in the classroom. >> thank you. we'll try to follow up with you. thank you. >> you are so quiet. who disagrees with me? [inaudible] >> oh, come on. [laughter] >> i have a circle of friends are crazy about eleanor roosevelt, try to imagine lots of aspects. >> i'm crazy about her, to. >> in the new show in the museum by posing half of it but i'm delighted by the fact somewhere it says fdr under beautiful.
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